Production and Characterization of New Generation Functional Composite Armor Plates with High Ballistic Resistance and Radiation Absorption Properties

Çanakçı A. (Executive), Çuvalcı H., Gedikli H., Yılmaz A. H., Varol T., Erdemir F., et al.

Project Supported by Higher Education Institutions, 2022 - 2025

  • Project Type: Project Supported by Higher Education Institutions
  • Begin Date: October 2022
  • End Date: October 2025

Project Abstract

In today's technology, structures designed with armor materials to respond to an attack type are widely used. Weapons that combine both ballistic and chemical properties used in the defense industry with the developing technology have brought the defense industry to different fields. It is seen that the armor materials used in both the defense industry and the researches in the literature are only designs that respond to a threat. In addition, the armor materials used in the defense industry should have high lightness (low density), high impact energy damping ability, high melting temperature, high impact resistance and low cost properties. As the armor material, steel and its alloys are the most commonly used in metal materials and are used in many application areas (such as tanks, personnel protectors, howitzer, light personnel carriers, helicopters). Although armor steels have many advantages, the fact that mechanical deformation and alloying processes take a long time, high density value, high cost and low radioactive energy damping effect negatively affect its usage. Titanium and its alloys are other types of materials used in armor materials. This material has a high production cost since it cannot be produced by conventional casting methods and also there is no operable titanium mine in our country. As aluminum and its alloys are 3 times lighter than steels, it is recommended to be used as armor material. However, their mechanical strength should be increased with a composite structure. Ceramics such as B4C, SiC, Al2O3 are preferred due to their low density (2.52 g/cm3, 3.21 g/cm3, 3.98 g/cm3, respectively), high melting temperature (2375 0C, 2750 0C, 2100 0C, respectively), high hardness and compressive strength, but they limit the use of armor materials due to their brittle structure, low fracture toughness and low impact damping properties.

In this thesis, materials with a functional grade layer of metal foam will be produced by adding 1-40% by weight boron carbide (B4C) ceramic reinforcement to aluminum by using powder metallurgy method. Using the micro-size AA2024 alloy as the aluminum matrix, the bottom layer of the functional grade structure will consist of 100% AA2024 alloy. The other layers will consist of micro-sized B4C reinforced composite layers ranging from 1-40% by weight, while the top layer will consist of 100% AA2024 metal foam layer. TiH2 powder will be used as foaming agent in the production of metal foam plates and the foaming process will be done in the oven at high temperature. Composite armor materials with the best features will be produced by optimizing the parameters such as mechanical milling process (speed, time, ball-to-powder weight ratio), cold and hot pressing pressure values, hot pressing temperature value, matrix and reinforcement powder sizes and amount TiH2. In the thesis work to be carried out, AA2024 metal foam layer and AA2024-B4C composite layers are specific in terms of developing new generation armor materials that are resistant to both ballistic and chemical (nuclear) effects by producing functional grade. The production of a new generation armor material, which includes many features (lightness, ballistic resistance, low thermal conductivity, high strength, radioactive resistance) in a single material, has not been studied until now.