In this study, morphological characteristics of juvenile 1- and 2-year-old seedlings of Anatolian black pine were studied to estimate the amount of genetic variation and heritability of seedling traits of the species in the Lakes District of Turkey. This nursery study involved 460 parent trees from 23 populations in a randomized complete block design. Traits studied were the number and length of cotyledons, hypocotyls and epicotyls lengths, weight and length of initial roots, height, root collar diameter, and stem and root fresh weights, and number of buds. Variation was higher among than within populations with individual tree heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.76, whereas family mean heritability ranged from 0.16 to 0.80. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between juvenile and 1-year-old seedling traits were generally the same sign and magnitude. Variation and heritabilities were higher for growth-related traits than the number and length of embryonic tissues. The observed level of population differentiation was low, possibly due limited geographic sampling of populations, which spanned only 2 degrees of latitudes and longitudes, and 300m in elevation. If the observed heritabilities for growth traits were sustained to tree maturity combined family and within family selection would be effective in improving growth of this species in the Lakes District of Turkey. A broader geographic sampling is recommended for better estimation of population differentiation and establishment of the geographic pattern of the species in this region.