TURKISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, vol.39, no.1, pp.144-153, 2015 (SCI-Expanded)
The present study determines the characteristics of bleaching and beating of annual plants and agricultural waste, which constitute important raw material potential for the pulp and paper industry in Turkey. It also examines the effects of this process on several paper properties. Firstly, chemical contents are determined for each raw material and then evaluated for use in the pulp and paper industry. All raw materials studied are found to be suitable for use in the pulp and paper industry, according to the determined chemical content. Secondly, pulp with different properties is obtained and subsequently pretreated with the enzyme xylanase. It is then bleached using the elementary chlorine-free (ECF) method, utilizing the DEpD bleaching sequence, which is both easy to apply and highly effective. The bleaching behavior of each material is then determined. The highest ISO brightness value of 98.3% is obtained using soda-AQ pulps deriving from rye straw. This is followed by wheat straw (92.0%), reed (88.6%), corn stalks (87.6%), and rice straw (87.5%). Each unbleached pulp sample is beaten at a constant 3000 revolutions PFI (9000 rev. for hemp), and changes in freeness properties are determined. The hardest material to beat is hemp fibers, followed by reed, rye, corn, and cotton stalks. The best beatable pulps are rice straw, tobacco, wheat, sunflower, and barley stalks. Paper sheets from both unbleached and bleached pulps are tested.