Effects of the ecological conditions on morphological variations of the green toad, Bufo viridis, in Turkey

Kutrup B., Bulbul U., Yilmaz N.

ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, vol.21, no.2, pp.208-214, 2006 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11284-005-0107-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.208-214
  • Keywords: Bufo viridis, morphological variation, green toad, taxonomy, FROGS, SIZE
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ten populations of the green toad, Bufo viridis, from three areas having different climatic regimes were compared. Multivariate analyses of morphological characteristics revealed three distinct populations of green toads: the first group inhabiting the lowland and humid localities was characterized by a small body size, the second group occurred at higher altitudes and in desert areas had a significantly larger body size, while the third group from the Mediterranean localities was characterized by a large tympanum, a longer tarsus and short first toes. Interestingly, the specimens from Giresun Island were clustered with the second group with a similar pattern of body size. Differences in the morphological characteristics among populations were positively associated with ecological conditions, and not with geographic distance. Some characteristics previously used for taxonomic purposes in B. viridis were shown to be associated with local climatic conditions.