Distributions of environmentally hazardous elements in the Tertiary oil shale deposits from NW Anatolia, Turkey: A statistical analysis

KORKMAZ S., Gulbay R. K.

ENERGY SOURCES PART A-RECOVERY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, vol.38, no.9, pp.1269-1278, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The environmentally hazardous element concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, S, and Zn) and element-organic matter relations of the oil shale deposits in six different fields in NW Anatolia, Turkey, were investigated and the characteristics of fields were compared. The enrichment factor (EF) for most of the trace elements in the studied oil shales generally show enrichment patterns for all the fields. Only Cr, Hg, and Pb for oil shale samples from the Bahcecik field samples and Hg for oil shale samples from the Golpazari field samples are depleted. Arsenic in the Bahcecik field samples and Hg in the Himmetoglu field samples are neither depleted nor enriched. The lowest and highest element enrichments in these fields are determined to be Hg and S, respectively. In general, all elements have high concentrations in the Beypazari and Seyitomer fields and low concentrations in the Himmetoglu, Bahcecik, and Golpazari (except for As) fields. A positive correlation at significance level of p <= 0.05 was observed for total organic carbon content with Cd in four of the fields, with Cu and S in two fields and with Cr, Mn, and Zn in only one field.