The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine factors associated with nurses' resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the latter half of 2020 from 904 nurses across Japan, Republic of Korea, Republic of Turkey, and the United States. The questionnaire included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10, plus demographics and 20 questions about practice environment, workplace safety concerning infection control, COVID-related experience, and organizational support. Fear of becoming infected, intention to leave nursing, and having had a positive COVID-19 test were inversely associated with resilience (p < 0.05). Regression analysis indicated that U.S. nurses had significantly greater resilience than nurses in the other countries examined (p < 0.001). Nurses reporting organization support and those who participated in policy and procedure development had higher resilience scores (p < 0.01). Organizational support, involving nurses in policy development, and country of practice were found to be important resilience factors in our research, which aligns with other findings. Further research is recommended to determine the optimal practice environment to support nurse resilience.