Natural history of ENPP1 deficiency: Nationwide Turkish Cohort Study of autosomal-recessive hypophosphataemic rickets type 2.

Dursun F., Turan İ., Bitkin E. Ç., Bayramoğlu E., Çayır A., Erdeve Ş. S., ...More

Clinical endocrinology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/cen.15028
  • Journal Name: Clinical endocrinology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Gender Studies Database
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


ObjectiveAutosomal-recessive hypophosphataemic rickets type 2 (ARHR2) is a rare disease that is reported in survivors of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI).Design, Patients and MeasurementThe objective of this study was to characterize a multicenter paediatric cohort with ARHR2 due to ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1 (ENPP1) deficiency and with a diagnosis of GACI or GACI-related findings. The clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the patients were retrospectively retrieved.ResultsWe identified 18 patients from 13 families diagnosed with ARHR2. Fifteen of the patients had an ENPP1 variation confirmed with genetic analyses, and three were siblings of one of these patients, who had clinically diagnosed hypophosphataemic rickets (HRs) with the same presentation. From nine centres, 18 patients, of whom 12 (66.7%) were females, were included in the study. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.2 +/- 2.2 (1.6-9) years. The most frequently reported clinical findings on admission were limb deformities (66.6%) and short stature (44.4%). At diagnosis, the mean height SD was -2.2 +/- 1.3. Five of the patients were diagnosed with GACI in the neonatal period and treated with bisphosphonates. Other patients were initially diagnosed with ARHR2, but after the detection of a biallelic variant in the ENPP1 gene, it was understood that they previously had clinical findings associated with GACI. Three patients had hearing loss, and two had cervical fusion. After the treatment of HRs, one patient developed calcification, and one developed intimal proliferation.ConclusionARHR2 represents one manifestation of ENPP1 deficiency that usually manifests later in life than GACI. The history of calcifications or comorbidities that might be associated with GACI will facilitate the diagnosis in patients with ARHR2, and patients receiving calcitriol and phosphate medication should be carefully monitored for signs of calcification or intimal proliferation.