Clinical, sonographical, and pathological findings of pediatric thyroid nodules

Creative Commons License

Cimbek E. A., Polat R., Sönmez B., Beyhun N. E., Dinç H., Saruhan H., ...More

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, vol.180, no.9, pp.2823-2829, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 180 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00431-021-04032-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.2823-2829
  • Keywords: Thyroid, nodule, ultrasonography, malignancy
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Thyroid nodules are less frequent in children than in adults. A higher rate of malignancy is highlighted in this group. We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound (US) findings of children and adolescents with benign and malignant thyroid nodules. This was a retrospective review of children and adolescents evaluated at a tertiary pediatric institution between 2007 and 2019. Patients with autonomously functioning nodules, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and a history of oncohematological disorders were excluded. A total of 102 patients with 131 nodules were identified. The study population included 57 females (55.9%); the average age was 10.6 +/- 4 years. Thirty-five nodules (26.7%) ranging 4.5-36 mm had a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) done: 45.7% (n = 16) were benign, 11.4% (n = 4) were classified as atypia, and 8.5% (n = 3) were consistent with papillary carcinoma. Fourteen patients (13.7%) underwent surgery. Five (4.9%) were finally diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer. Of the 6 patients with benign FNAs, all except one, which was initially reported as atypia by an earlier FNA but was later diagnosed with papillary carcinoma, had a colloid nodular goiter. Of the 3 patients with atypia FNAs, one was found to be papillary carcinoma. One hundred twenty-five benign nodules (21 based on cytology and/or histology, 104 on clinical and imaging follow-up) were diagnosed. Nodule size, microcalcifications, solid parenchyma, and pathologic lymph node alterations were associated with malignancy, but nodule growth was not.