The investigation of soil-structure resonance of historical buildings using seismic refraction and ambient vibrations HVSR measurements: a case study from Trabzon in Turkey


ACTA GEOPHYSICA, vol.66, no.6, pp.1413-1433, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11600-018-0208-0
  • Title of Journal : ACTA GEOPHYSICA
  • Page Numbers: pp.1413-1433


In this study, two different historical structures built in Trabzon have been processed by ambient vibrations and seismic refraction measurements. One of the investigated historical structures is the Ataturk Pavilion built in the nineteenth century, and the other one is Hagia Sophia which was built in the thirteenth century. These two buildings are among the most important historical buildings in Trabzon and are very important for the tourism of the city. In order to determine peak/s frequency and amplitude from the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSRs), we have performed several measurements of ambient vibrations both inside (at different floors) and outside (on the ground) of structures. We have also conducted seismic prospecting to evaluate the vertical 1D and 2D profile of longitudinal and shear seismic waves, V-p and V-s, respectively. To this purpose, we have performed seismic refraction tomography and MASW. Ambient vibrations and seismic measurements were compared with each other. The results show that average predominant frequencies and HVSR amplitudes of inside and outside of Ataturk Pavilion are 4.0Hz, 7.8Hz and 2.6, 2.3, respectively. The V-p values vary from 300 to 2070m/s, and the V-s for maximum effective depth is up to 790m/s in Ataturk Pavilion. On the other hand, average predominant frequencies and HVSR amplitudes of inside and outside of Hagia Sophia and its tower are 4.7, 4.4 and 2.4Hz and 1.6, 1.8 and 6.9, respectively. V-p values range from 450 to 2200m/s, and V-s for maximum effective depth is also up to 1000m/s in Hagia Sophia. The frequency values (F-0=V-s/4h) calculated from the velocities up to the maximum effective depth for Ataturk Pavilion are in good agreement with the predominant frequency values determined from ambient vibrations. Ataturk Pavilion and Hagia Sophia soils have been classed according to Eurocode 8 by using V-S30 values. The class was defined as B. Moreover, the bedrock in studied area is basalt. The high V-p and V-s values are also compatible with the lithology. The HVSR curves measured at the Hagia Sophia show the presence of clear peaks when compared to the Ataturk Pavilion. At the same time, there are marked velocity changes in the V-s sections calculated in both areas. As a result, in both areas there are significant impedance contrasts in the subsoil. However, this impedance contrast is more evident in Hagia Sophia. This could be also compatible with a lithological transition. The possible soil-structure interaction was investigated by using all the results and evaluated in terms of resonance risk. It is thought that the probability of resonance risk at Ataturk Pavilion is low according to the ambient vibrations measurements. However, resonance risk should be taken into consideration at Hagia Sophia site since the predominant frequency values are very close to each other. Finally, this site should be investigated in detail and necessary precautions should be taken against the risk of resonance.