A Gram-stain-negative, lack of motility, catalase- and oxidase- positive bacterium (strain MT1(T)) was isolated from Buharkent hot spring in Aydin, Turkey. Its taxonomy was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was able to grow at 45-80 degrees C, pH 5.5-10.5 and with a NaCI tolerance up to 2.0% (w/v). Strain MT1(T) was able to utilize d-mannitol and l-arabinose, not able to utilize d-cellobiose as sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Thermus; strain MT1(T) detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. The predominant fatty acids of strain MT1(T) were iso-C-15:0 (43.0%) and iso-C-17:0 (27.4%). Polar lipid analysis revealed a major phospholipid, one major glycolipid, one major aminophospholipid, two minor aminolipids, one minor phospholipid, and several minor glycolipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C content of MT1(T) was 69.6 mol%. On the basis of a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain MT1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus anatoliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MT1(T) (=NCCB 100425(T) =LMG 26880(T)).