Assessment of heavy metal(loid)s in groundwater by multivariate statistical analysis and metals pollution indices: a case study of carsamba coastal aquifer, North Turkey

Hassan A. M., Ersoy A. F., Turan N. A.

ARABIAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, vol.14, no.23, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12517-021-09007-w
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Geobase, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Hydrochemical process, Metaloids, Seawater intrusion, carsamba coastal aquifer, Turkey, WATER, NITRATE, PLAIN
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


carsamba plain located in the north-east of Turkey is a region where agricultural and industrial activities have strongly developed in recent years. In this region, excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural areas and waste discharges from industrial zones can lead to the pollution of groundwater by heavy metal(loid)s. The purpose of the present study is to assess heavy metal(loid)s pollution in groundwater of carsamba costal aquifer using pollution indices and multivariate statistical methods. For this study, 33 groundwater samples were taken in this region and for these samples' physical parameters and Pb, Cu, Al, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, As, Mo, Se, B, Ti, V, and Ba values were determined. The analysis results showed that the Al, Mn, Se, Cr, and Ni values in some wells exceeded the permitted limit of WHO and Turkish Standards. The HPI and HEI values of most water samples fall in low pollution water class. Multivariate statistical methods revealed a significant anthropogenic influence in the accumulation of metal(loid)s in groundwater. The decreasing order of heavy metal(loid)s in most water samples is Al > Mn > Zn > Se > Ti > Ba > Cr > Ni > As > V > Cu > Mo > Se > Co > Pb > B > Cd. Five principal components that explain 80.44% of the total variance have been formed. The component 1 includes Al, Pb, Co, Ti, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V while the second component is associated with EC, Se, and B. The component 3 includes pH, Ba, and Mn; component 4 represents As and Mo; and finally component 5 includes only Cr.