Comparison of Microsatellite Instability With Clinicopathologic Data in Patients With Colon Adenocarcinoma

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CUREUS JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE, no.4, 2024 (ESCI) identifier identifier


Background Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genetic condition caused by errors in DNA repair genes that cause colorectal cancer (CRC). The literature contradicts the frequency of MSI in sporadic CRCs and its effect on prognosis. This study investigated the distribution of clinicopathologic features and the relationship between MSI and survival outcomes. Methodology This is a retrospective study of 101 consecutive cases of CRC and immunohistochemical studies. All cases were retrospectively reviewed and reevaluated by histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, tumor borders, dirty necrosis, tumor -infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction, mucinous and medullary differentiation, and tumoral budding from pathological slides. An immunohistochemical study was performed in appropriate blocks for using MLH-1, MSH-2, MSH-6, and PMS-2. We collected the clinical stage, pathological tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, age, sex, tumor diameter, distant metastasis, localization, and survival information from patients' clinical data. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding age, gender, tumor diameter, histological grade, tumor border, dirty necrosis, TILs, N and M stage, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, mucinous differentiation, medullary differentiation, and tumor budding characteristics of the patients. The MSI-H group was more frequently located in the right colon and transverse colon (p < 0.001), and the T stage was higher among them than in the MSI-L group (p = 0.014). Upon multivariate regression analysis, MSI status had no significant effect on survival time. Age and stage N and M were independent prognostic factors for colon cancer prognosis. Conclusions Our study presented the distribution of clinicopathological features and their relationship with MSI for 101 regional CRC patients. MSI status was detected by immunohistochemistry. Identifying MSI in CRCs may help personalize therapy planning. As the distribution of the features may vary from population to population, further investigations are needed on this topic.