Dorsal guard hairs from three canid species that included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), golden jackal (Canis
aureus), and gray wolf (Canis lupus) found in Turkey were characterized using light microscopy to study
hair features, including cuticle and medullary patterns, medullary index, and hair length and root. The
morphological features of the medulla and cuticle structures were quite similar for the three species, but
a distinct difference was observed in the medulla structure. While the medullary structures of both C.
aureus and C. lupus had a vacuolated structure, a multiseriate structure was observed in the V. vulpes.
The average longest hairs (means ± standard errors [SE]) were observed to be 6.66 ± 1.22, 6.02 ± 0.75,
and 5.56±5.57 cm in C. aureus, V. vulpes, and C. lupus, respectively. The highest medullary index (0.72
± 0.52 μm) was recorded in C. aureus followed by V. vulpes (0.70 ± 0.56 μm) with the lowest in C.
lupus (0.42 ± 0.64 μm). Hair root diameter values were determined as 136.27±29.25, 102.30±17.19,
and 62.23±10.37 μm in C. lupus, C. aureus, and V. vulpes. Based on the one-way analysis of variance,
significant differences were identified in both hair length and diameter, medullary diameter and index, and
hair root diameter values among the three species (P <0.05)