Microanatomical Observations of Hair Characteristics of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), and Gray Wolf (Canis lupus): A Comparative Study

Arpacık A.

PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, vol.53, no.6, pp.2247-2254, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.17582/journal.pjz/20200728150743
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Animal Behavior Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.2247-2254
  • Keywords: Dorsal guard hair, Cuticle, Medulla, Medullary Index, Canidae, GUARD HAIRS, IDENTIFICATION KEY, MAMMALS, WILD
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Dorsal guard hairs from three canid species that included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), golden jackal (Canis aureus), and gray wolf (Canis lupus) found in Turkey were characterized using light microscopy to study hair features, including cuticle and medullary patterns, medullary index, and hair length and root. The morphological features of the medulla and cuticle structures were quite similar for the three species, but a distinct difference was observed in the medulla structure. While the medullary structures of both C. aureus and C. lupus had a vacuolated structure, a multiseriate structure was observed in the V. vulpes. The average longest hairs (means +/- standard errors [SE]) were observed to be 6.66 +/- 1.22, 6.02 +/- 0.75, and 5.56 +/- 5.57 cm in C. aureus, V. vulpes, and C. lupus, respectively. The highest medullary index (0.72 +/- 0.52 mu m) was recorded in C. aureus followed by V. vulpes (0.70 +/- 0.56 mu m) with the lowest in C. lupus (0.42 +/- 0.64 mu m). Hair root diameter values were determined as 136.27 +/- 29.25, 102.30 +/- 17.19, and 62.23 +/- 10.37 mu m in C. lupus, C. aureus, and V. vulpes. Based on the one-way analysis of variance, significant differences were identified in both hair length and diameter, medullary diameter and index, and hair root diameter values among the three species (P <0.05).