Background Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 (PCPE-1) is a 55 kDa glycoprotein, which increases the activity of procollagen C-proteinases that break down C-terminal propeptides. Studies have shown that PCPE-1 is involved in the fibrotic process that occurs in various tissues and organs. Our review of the literature revealed no data concerning the relation between PCPE-1 and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine PCPE-1 levels in CKD. Methods One hundred thirty-one CKD patients and 34 healthy controls were included in our study. Demographic data were recorded, and routine biochemical tests were performed. Blood specimens were collected for PCPE-1 investigation. Demographic data, biochemical test results and PCPE-1 levels were compared between the control and patient groups. Parameters affecting PCPE-1 levels in our patient group were assessed. Results Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 levels were significantly higher in our patient group compared to the control group. Parameters affecting PCPE-1 elevation in the patient group were identified as systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, haemoglobin, intact parathormone levels, glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. Conclusion We determined high PCPE-1 levels in CKD patients. PCPE-1 levels being negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate suggests that PCPE-1 may be associated with progression in CKD patients.