Today, energy needs have been gradually augmenting owing to the development of societies. Therefore, efforts to find alternative energy sources continue. Besides the introduction of new fossils, nuclear plants and increasing number of attempts in the field of wind and sea wave energy, the creation of small-scale water power plants on rivers have been accelerated in the last few years. The establishment of large numbers of hydroelectric power plants (HPP), especially on major river stream systems of the Eastern Black Sea which feed the region and is of paramount importance in ecological terms, has been kept in the foreground these days. The number of HPP projects, which have given rise to protest among the scientific community and local people, is approximately 350. It is a fact that major ecological problems will be encountered in projects utilising the level difference method by which water collected from the streams to be transferred to shallower water sections through tunnels and when the potential energy is turned to electrical power through turbines. Some of the HPP projects lead ecological destruction in forests, pastures, villages, farmlands and rivers. This research focuses on the analysis of the ecological, economic and social problems in the Eastern Black Sea region caused by HPP buildings and tries to provide solutions to this ecological issue.