JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS, vol.195, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Citalopram (CIT) and its S-enantiomer, escitalopram (ESC), are antidepressants belonging to the class called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and have many different pharmacological and biological properties. Understanding the interaction mechanism of small drug molecules with DNA both helps in the development of new DNA-targeted drugs and provides more in-depth knowledge for controlling gene expression. In this study, the interaction of CIT and ESC with double-stranded calf thymus DNA (ct-dsDNA) was investigated for the first time. Spectrofluorometric, liquid chromatographic, and voltammetric response profiles of drugs and ct-dsDNA at different concentrations showed DNA-drug complex formation. Calculated binding constants were greater with all three techniques for ESC compared to CIT and were of the order of 10(3)-10(4), which is in accordance with those of well-known groove binders. The results also showed the significant effect of chirality on complex formation. The thermodynamic parameters, including free energy change (Delta G < 0) and enthalpy change (Delta H < 0) obtained at different temperatures, indicated that complex formation was mainly driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces for both drugs. The results of this study may enhance the understanding of the interaction between CIT or ESC and ct-dsDNA and can be considered as the pioneer for future studies to uncover possible hidden phenotypes of these compounds. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.