EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol.32, no.6, pp.3514-3521, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Purpose 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sufficiency has critical biological importance for the human body. Although there are several studies on the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and macular structure, the data in this regard are limited. This study mainly aimed to investigate macular microvascular structure using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in 25(OH)D deficiency. Study Design Prospective, single-center, clinical study. Methods The study included 82 eyes of 82 patients with 25(OH)D deficiency (Group I) and 50 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (Group II). All participants underwent OCTA examinations. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel density (VD) measurements of the participants were statistically compared between the patients and healthy subjects. Results The mean 25(OH)D levels measured from the venous blood samples of the participants were 7.61 +/- 3.27 ng/mL in Group I and 25.39 +/- 4.16 ng/mL in Group II, and the difference between these values was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The FAZ measurement was significantly higher in Group I. The VDs of the SCP and DCP measurements were significantly higher in Group II. When the central macular thickness values of the participants were compared, Group II had a significantly higher value, but there was no significant difference in the central macular volume and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness analyses. Conclusion The results showed that the FAZ area was significantly higher and the VDs of SCP and DCP were significantly lower in the patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. We found that 25(OH)D deficiency affected macular microvascular architecture.