Silver Doped Zinc Stannate (Ag-ZnSnO3) for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Caffeine under UV Irradiation

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Anucha C. B., Altin İ., BACAKSIZ E., Stathopoulos V. N., POLAT İ., YAŞAR A., ...More

WATER, vol.13, no.9, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/w13091290
  • Journal Name: WATER
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: photocatalysis, Ag-ZnSnO3, emerging contaminants, caffeine, water purification, EMERGING CONTAMINANTS, GAS SENSOR, LIGHT, ZNSNO3, NANOSTRUCTURES, CARBON, WATER, PHARMACEUTICALS, HETEROJUNCTION, FABRICATION
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) spread across a wide range of organic product compounds. As biorecalcitrants, their removal from conventional wastewater treatment systems remains a herculean task. To address this issue, heterogenous solar driven advanced oxidation process based-TiO2 and other semiconductor materials has been extensively studied for their abatement from wastewater sources. In this study, we have synthesized by hydrothermal assisted co-precipitation Ag doped ZnSnO3. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), N-2 adsorption-desorption at 77 K by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda (BJH) methods, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and UV-visible absorption in Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis/DRS) mode. Crystallite size estimate for Ag-ZnSnO3 and undoped form was 19.4 and 29.3 nm, respectively, while respective TEM particle size estimate was 79.0 nm and 98.2 nm. BET surface area and total pore volume by BJH for Ag-ZnSnO3 were estimated with respective values of 17.2 m(2)/g and 0.05 cm(3)/g in comparison to 18.8 m(2)/g and 0.06 cm(3)/g for ZnSnO3. Derived energy band gap (Eg) values were 3.8 eV for Ag-ZnSnO3 and 4.2 eV for ZnSnO3. Photocatalytic performance of Ag-ZnSnO3 was tested towards caffeine achieving about 68% removal under (natural) unmodified pH = 6.50 and almost 100% removal at initial pH around 7.5 after 4 h irradiation. The effect of initial pH, catalyst dosage, pollutant concentration, charge scavengers, H2O2, contaminant inorganic ions (anions) as well as humic acid (HA) on the photocatalyst activity over caffeine degradation were assessed. In accordance with the probation test of the reactive species responsible for photocatalytic degradation process, a reaction mechanism was deduced.