Objective. Alterations of the lipid profile are a well known phenomenon in thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid hormones regulate lipid metabolism through various mechanisms, but a key role is played by the LDL receptor pathway. Thyroid hormone influence on lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] metabolism is known. Methods and results. Therefore we studied Lp(a) concentrations in a group of 16 hypothyroid patients and in a group of 22 hyperthyroid patients. Twenty-six euthyroid subjects were used as a control group. Plasma Lp(a) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients (23.2 ± 28.1 mg/dl) were significantly lower than those of the hypothyroid patients (27.1 ± 19.2, p < 0.05). There were negative correlations between plasma Lp(a) concentrations and total T4 levels in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism (r: -0.49, p < 0.05; r: -0.40, P < 0.05, respectively). Also, decreased HDL-C levels, increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and apo B levels in the hypothyroid patients according to euthyroid subjects were observed (p < 0.05). Decreased LDL-C levels, increased HDL-C and apo AI levels in the hyperthyroid patients according to euthyroid subjects were determined (p < 0.05). Conclusions. It was concluded that plasma Lp(a) concentrations increase in hypothyroid patients and the observed relationships between thyroid status and Lp(a) levels can be explained by impaired catabolism of apo B and Lp(a) in hypothyroidism.