Background: Cognitive dysfunction and immune system disorders are two actual issues for the patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The cognitive dysfunctions have been considered to substantial part of clinical phenomenon of OCD but exploration of various etiopathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is needed. Immune dysfuncion has been implicated to be important part of pathopysiology of OCD and different lines of evidence suggests immune abnormalities in OCD. But whether these immune changes are traits of disease or secondary to clinical burden of the disease such as cognitive dysfunctions has not been determined. Data regarding relation between the cognitive dysfunctions and immune system disorders in OCD is unsatisfied. In this study we aimed to investigate the relation of blood levels of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with various neurocognitive functions in patients with OCD in comparison with its autogenous/reactive subtypes and healthy controls. Further exploration of the effects of various clinical variables on cognitive functioning in patients with OCD and additional investigation of whether the cognitive dysfunction associated with this disorder differs from or overlap with that in other anxiety disorders are needed.