© 2020, Universa Press. All rights reserved.Purpose: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors is not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of HBV reactivation in these patients. Methods: Data among 645 HBsAg-negative/ anti-HBc-posi-tive patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups, based on received antiviral prophylaxis (n = 43) or not (n = 602). HBV reactivation was defined as the presence of detectable serum HBV DNA or HBsAg seroconversion from negative to positive, with or without increased liver enzymes. Results: HBV reactivation was detected in 3 patients (0.49%) among non-antiviral prophylaxis group and in none of those with antiviral prophylaxis. Two of the HBV reactivation detected patients were successfully treated with rescue therapy, while the third died due to liver failure. Conclusions: HBV reactivation is rare in HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc-positive patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors. However, considering the fatal outcomes patients must be closely monitored in terms of HBV-DNA positivity and/or HBsAg seroreversion and pre-emptive antiviral therapy must be initiated as soon as HBV reactivation occurs.