Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to be related to mutational activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, KIT, or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha. The coexistence of GISTs with other neoplams has been extensively addressed in the literature. The most common second neoplasms are colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and neoplasms derived from lymphoid tissue. In this case report, we describe a patient affected by GIST and acute myeloid leukemia preceded by myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia. The clinicopathological characteristics of the patient are discussed and the literature is reviewed.