Response surface methodology-based extraction optimization with application of ZrCl4 as novel quenching agent for enhancement of bio-oil yield from Jatropha curcas and Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Ahmad S., Kothari R., Pathak V. V., Tyagi V. V., Pandey A. K., SARI A.

BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY, vol.13, no.9, pp.7585-7599, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-021-01705-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.7585-7599
  • Keywords: Biofuel, Biofixation, Quenching agent, Bio-oil, Response surface methodology, CARBON-DIOXIDE, FUEL QUALITY, BIODIESEL, MICROALGAE, SEQUESTRATION, PRODUCTIVITY, CULTIVATION, GROWTH
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Jatropha curcas and microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, two different biofuel feedstocks, are investigated in the present study for optimization of lipid production in the presence of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) as a novel quenching agent. Furthermore, the biofixation ability of C. pyrenoidosa for carbon dioxide was also determined in batch experimental studies. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization of bio-oil extraction from selected feedstocks by varying the dose of the quenching agent (mg/g), extraction time (h), and temperature (degrees C). The optimized yield of bio-oil was obtained with 1.41 mg/g quenching agent, 60 degrees C temperature, and 1.5 h of reaction time. For J. curcas, optimized yield of bio-oil was 43.78% while 32.45% bio-oil yield was obtained with C. pyrenoidosa. Microalga showed highest biomass productivity (289.34 g L-1 day(-1)) at 10% CO2 concentration while maximum CO2 sequestration (5.5 +/- 0.07 g CO2 L-1 day(-1)) was observed at 20% CO2 concentrations. Bio-oil obtained from both feedstocks was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which clearly shows peak at 1400-1700 cm(-1) that confirms the presence of carbonyl group (-COOR-). Thus, the present study provides a competitive analysis for the extraction of bio-oil which is an urgent need to enhance the process for economic sustainability.