Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiological cause of complicated pneumonia, including empyema. In this study, we investigated the serotypes of S. pneumoniae that cause empyema in children. One hundred fifty-six children who were diagnosed with pneumonia complicated with empyema in 13 hospitals in seven geographic regions of Turkey between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. Pleural fluid samples were collected by thoracentesis and tested for 14 serotypes/serogroups using a Bio-Plex multiplex antigen detection assay. The serotypes of S. pneumoniae were specified in 33 of 156 samples. The mean age +/- the standard deviation of the 33 patients was 6.17 +/- 3.54 years (range, 0.6 to 15 years). All of the children were unvaccinated according to the vaccination reports. Eighteen of the children were male, and 15 were female. The serotypes of the non-7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (non-PCV-7), serotype 1, serotype 5, and serotype 3, were detected in eight (14.5%), seven (12.7%), and five (9.1%) of the samples, respectively. Serotypes 1 and 5 were codetected in two samples. The remaining non-PCV- 7 serotypes were 8 (n = 3), 18 (n = 1), 19A (n = 1), and 7F/A (n = 1). PCV-7 serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were detected in nine (16.3%) of the samples. The potential serotype coverages of PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 were 16.3%, 45.4%, and 60%, respectively. Pediatric parapneumonic empyema continues to be an important health problem despite the introduction of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. Active surveillance studies are needed to monitor the change in S. pneumoniae serotypes that cause empyema in order to have a better selection of pneumococcal vaccines.