Classical fever of unknown origin in 21 countries with different economic development: an international ID-IRI study

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Erdem H., Baymakova M., ALKAN S., Letaief A., Yahia W. B., Dayyab F., ...More

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol.42, no.4, pp.387-398, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10096-023-04561-5
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.387-398
  • Keywords: Economic development, Fever, Fever of unknown origin, FUO, ID-IRI, DISEASES, INFECTIONS, TURKEY
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a serious challenge for physicians. The aim of the present study was to consider epidemiology and dynamics of FUO in countries with different economic development. The data of FUO patients hospitalized/followed between 1st July 2016 and 1st July 2021 were collected retrospectively and submitted from referral centers in 21 countries through ID-IRI clinical research platform. The countries were categorized into developing (low-income (LI) and lower middle-income (LMI) economies) and developed countries (upper middle-income (UMI) and high-income (HI) economies). This research included 788 patients. FUO diagnoses were as follows: infections (51.6%; n = 407), neoplasms (11.4%, n = 90), collagen vascular disorders (9.3%, n = 73), undiagnosed (20.1%, n = 158), miscellaneous diseases (7.7%, n = 60). The most common infections were tuberculosis (n = 45, 5.7%), brucellosis (n = 39, 4.9%), rickettsiosis (n = 23, 2.9%), HIV infection (n = 20, 2.5%), and typhoid fever (n = 13, 1.6%). Cardiovascular infections (n = 56, 7.1%) were the most common infectious syndromes. Only collagen vascular disorders were reported significantly more from developed countries (RR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.19–3.38). FUO had similar characteristics in LI/LMI and UMI/HI countries including the portion of undiagnosed cases (OR, 95% CI; 0.87 (0.65–1.15)), death attributed to FUO (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.65–1.15, p-value = 0.3355), and the mean duration until diagnosis (p = 0.9663). Various aspects of FUO cannot be determined by the economic development solely. Other development indices can be considered in future analyses. Physicians in different countries should be equally prepared for FUO patients.