Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood. wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also produced to a very limited extent from willow crops in short rotation forestry, The major part of wood harvested in the forest area (approximately 10 million ha) ends up as energy wood directly or indirectly after having been used for other purposes first. An overview of biomass potential and utilization in Turkey is presented. In 1999, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10 percent. The level of fuelwood use together with that of other agricultural and animal wastes is compared with the commercial energy use within the country's global energy balance. The possibilities of increasing fuelwood production through afforestation programmes and substitution for commercial fuels are discussed. Biogas utilization in the rural regions is also reviewed, emphasizing its possible contribution. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.