Congress on Gender Studies: Gendered Global Crisis, York, United Kingdom, 10 - 12 November 2021, pp.75-76
THE COMPARISON OF TURKEY'S MALE AND FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION TO BRICS: FROM 1990 TO THE ERA OF COVID-19
Nimet KALKAN / Karadeniz Teknik University
A balanced labor force distribution is one of the critical points for a sustainable growth economy (Choudhry, Marelli, & Signorelli, 2010; Stevens, 2010). This balance should be considered in terms of gender together with an economic perspective. Despite the male-dominated workforce dominance of the past, today's women-oriented work perspective is developing at an increasing level. However, it is a fact that the female labor force plays the second fiddle compared to the male (World Bank). Researches justify this situation with women's inadequate education, cultural prejudices, etc (Mehrotra & Parida, 2017). However, despite these conditions, women's labor force participation rates increase in crisis-era, especially in developing countries, and explained by the "added worker effect" approach (Lundberg, 1985). Turkey's position in those expected conditions like similar to some countries while having some differences. In this regard, the research aims to present a descriptive picture within the framework of BRICS countries and Turkey and present the striking points in the female labor force in Turkey basing on the critical observations. Arising this comparison is from that Turkey has openly declared her intention to include the BRICS, the group of the world's rising powers. Turkey's involvement in the BRICS Summit, 2018, and the recognition of its potential to include in the group in terms of its economic indicators created many studies comparing these countries to Turkey. I hope that a study dealing with Turkey and the BRICS in terms of the female labor force will reveal the invisible and bring new perspectives to the issue.
A second aim of the research is to answer the questions those how Covid-19 affected the labor force in general, the female and in particular, how similar or different this effect is with previous crisis periods. Discussing the answers to these questions can bring an initiative expansion in restructuring the female labor force and eliminating the deficiencies with new policies in the new world order, in which Covid-19 has led to sharp changes and regulations.
According to the results, the first point is that the male labor force participation rate is higher than the female for all countries. China draws attention to having the closest ratios of male and female. Turkey has the lowest rate of female labor force between 1996-2010. Since 2007, Turkey has had the highest upward trend. As a result, even though an increasing trend has entered into force, the data of nearly 30 years tells us that female labor force participation should increase much more.
The supreme difference of Covid-19 from the effects of other crises is that it has narrowed the labor force participation rates in all countries, regardless of gender. Furthermore, it makes one feel that this contraction may continue in the coming years. In favor of the outcome of this evaluation, the later stages of the research should probe these points: Could the resurgence period created after Covid-19 be an opportunity to eliminate the inequality in Congress on Gender Studies: CGS21: Gendered Global Crises – Abstract Book 76 female labor force participation? Can the female labor policies of China, Russia, and Brazil be a lead for Turkey, integrating with the balanced wage practices and good work conditions? Can Turkey find a place among the fast-growing countries in 2050, with the support it will receive from the female labor force?
Keywords: Labor Force, Female, BRICS, Turkey, Covid-19