Screening the immunotoxicity of different food preservative agents on the model organism Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

Erbas E., Gwokyalya R., Altuntas H., KUTRUP B.

DRUG AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol.46, no.4, pp.757-767, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01480545.2022.2091589
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.757-767
  • Keywords: Galleria mellonella, model organism, immunotoxicity, food preservatives, hemocytes, IN-VIVO MODEL, SODIUM BENZOATE, HEMOCYTES, INSECT, INFECTION, HOST, COMBINATIONS, AZADIRACHTIN, CASPOFUNGIN, RESPONSES
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Immunotoxic effects of sodium benzoate (SB, E211), sodium nitrate (SNa, E251), and sodium nitrite (SNi, E250), a few of the most common food preservatives, on the model organism Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae were investigated in this study. The last instar larvae were used for all experimental analyses. For this purpose, median lethal doses of SB, SNa, and SNi were applied to the larvae by the force-feeding method. We found that force-feeding G. mellonella larvae with SB, SNa, and SNi significantly reduced the larval total hemocyte counts, prohemocyte, and granulocyte ratios but increased plasmatocyte, spherulocyte, and oenocyte ratios, as well as the hemocyte mitotic indices and micronucleus frequency. The spreading ability of hemocytes and hemocyte-mediated immune responses were lower in the SB, SNa-, and SNi-treated larval groups compared to controls. Apoptotic indices were higher in all larval groups treated with food preservatives, but increments in necrotic indices were only significantly higher in SNi-treated larvae compared to controls. Our research shows that SB, SNa, and SNi have immunotoxic and cytotoxic potential on G. mellonella larvae. Thus, we suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as preliminary in vivo models to screen the immunotoxic effects of food preservative agents.