Birinci Dünya Savaşı Öncesi Türk Boğazları Askeri Jeo-Politiği: Çarlık Rusyası’nın Boğazları İşgal Planları


TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI, vol.37, no.1, pp.277-304, 2022 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.18513/egetid.1148752
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Index Islamicus, MLA - Modern Language Association Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.277-304
  • Keywords: Alliances, Straits, Balkan Wars, Sublime Porte, Passage Regime, POLICY, WAR
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Turkish Straits, located at the southern border line of Asia and Europe, during the historical span were one of the basic reasons caused numbers of wars, conflicts, and alliances. The diplomatic, political and judicial developments of 218 years lasting period between Petro the Great and WWI mostly has been steered Ottoman Russian conflict on Straits. Turkish Straits were the focus point of that period European power diplomacy also affected the process. While the desire to owe Straits became major foreign policy scope of Tsarist Russia Ottoman Empire and European big powers used almost all means they had to keep Russia far from the Straits. When conditions changed, politics, alliances and rivalries which Straits were the focus point also changed but the main pivot of Ottoman Russian conflict and struggle never changed. Tsarist Russia, by declaring any measure or fortification at the northern entrance of Straits as a hostile act tried to obstruct any attempt which would endanger its warships' passage through Straits. That policy was in use for a definite period. At the eve of WWI, Russia generated more aggressive policy toward Straits, number of plans have been made by Russia to invade Straits. Balance of power and alliance formations of the era forced Russia to postpone its planned operations, before implementation of last plan WWI has broken out.