Developing a "Social Presence Scale" for E-learning Environments

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Kilic Cakmak E., Cebi A., Kan A.

KURAM VE UYGULAMADA EGITIM BILIMLERI, vol.14, no.2, pp.764-768, 2014 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.12738/estp.2014.2.1847
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.764-768
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of the current study is to develop a "social presence scale" for e-learning environments. A systematic approach was followed for developing the scale. The scale was applied to 461 students registered in seven different programs at Gazi University. The sample was split into two subsamples on a random basis (n1-261; n2=200). The first sample was used for Exploratory Factor Analysis, and the second sample for Confirmatory Factor Analysis. After the Exploratory Factor Analysis, the scale included 17 items and three factors. These factors were labeled as interactive, cohesive, and affective in light of the relevant literature. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was found to be .84, whereas the values of Cronbach's alpha coefficient for individual factors of the scale ranged between .75 and .81. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted within the scope of the validity study of the scale confirming the structure of the 3-factor scale. The findings of the study revealed that the scale was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring social presence.