© 2022 by The Medical Bulletin of Istanbul Haseki Training and Research Hospital The Medical Bulletin of Haseki published by Galenos Yayinevi.Aim: This study aimed to determine the change in neural tube defects (NTD) incidence in Trabzon, a province of the Eastern Black Sea region, and evaluate the efficiency of folic acid use on NTD. Methods: The present study was a retrospective case-control study. The case group of the study consisted of those diagnosed with fetal NTD in the intrauterine period between 2015 and 2020. The control group were selected by matching the ages in the case group with ± two standardized years. The total number of births in the province was obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute data, and the NTD incidence was determined accordingly. Results: Between the aforementioned years, the number of cases who had NTD-complicated pregnancies and were delivered in our clinic was 88. When the use of folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was compared, a statistically significant difference was determined between the groups (p<0.001). The use of folic acid during pregnancy was similar in both groups (p=1). Conclusion: Neural tube defects is a preventable condition by using folic acid before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Hence, the importance of using folic acid in family planning and prenatal counseling should not be forgotten.