Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of typhoid fever in Africa: A review

Mahmoud A., Oluyemisi A., Uwishema O., Sun J., Jobran A. W., David S., ...More

International Journal of Health Planning and Management, vol.38, no.2, pp.317-329, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/hpm.3599
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ASSIA, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Geobase, MEDLINE, PAIS International
  • Page Numbers: pp.317-329
  • Keywords: Africa, diagnosis, disease management, Sub-Saharan Africa, typhoid fever, ENTERIC FEVER, WIDAL TEST, SALMONELLA, EPIDEMIOLOGY, SURVEILLANCE, CHALLENGES, RESISTANCE, ASIA
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: No


© 2022 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Typhoid fever, a classical disease of enteric origin caused by Salmonella species of bacteria, is among the most important diseases threatening public health in Africa. The African continent is a marker for both low resources within the healthcare system and poor disease control policy formulations in managing endemic infectious diseases. Since the colonial era, the Widal serological test has been used to confirm typhoid fever in Africa, however recent studies recommend blood culture, and when blood culture cannot be obtained, clinical findings, laboratory Widal test confirmation, and ruling out other febrile illnesses as confirmatory pathway to diagnose typhoid fever in Africa. Managing typhoid fever relies on antimicrobials. In 1980s chloramphenicol was the medication of choice. Years later, amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole were adopted. However, the instantaneous rise of resistant strains of Salmonella enterica confers an important challenge to treat the burdensome enteric fever. The current treatment algorithm of typhoid fever in Africa relies significantly on the use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and cephalosporins. Developed nations have successfully addressed and controlled typhoid fever via improvement in accessing safe water and food, better sanitary and hygienic behaviours, and vaccines development. Nevertheless, there is significant evidence to infer improvement in the diagnosis management of typhoid fever over the last few decades, and efforts are underway to control the disease spread in Africa. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest developments in typhoid fever diagnosis and management in Africa and provide key recommendations for a coordinated approach to mitigate typhoid in the continent.