A multiplex PCR (mPCR) method was designed for the simultaneous detection of 4 major fish pathogens, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Lactococcus garvieae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. putida. Each of the 4 pairs of oligonucleotide primers exclusively amplified the 16S rDNA gene of their targeted microorganism. The average detection limits for each organism amplified by mPCR were 2 colony-forming units (CFU) of F. psychrophilum, 3 CFU of L. garvieae, 3 CFU of P. aeruginosa, and 5 CFU of P. putida in mixed cultures. Multiplex PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against 28 related species of bacteria. High amounts of DNA from 1 bacterial species had a significant effect on the amplification sensitivity of the other bacterial species when these were present in lower concentrations in the multiplex reaction. The mPCR assay proved useful for the detection of the bacteria in naturally infected fish. The assay is a sensitive, specific, and reproducible diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of 4 pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in fish and offers a potentially useful alternative to the conventional culture-based method.