Background: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is associated with morbidity and mortality. We first examined the role of levosimendan in the protection of intestine after mesenteric IR. Methods: The rats were divided into six groups: (1) Control group; (2) Levosimendan group; (3) Ischemia group (60 min of occlusion); (4) IR group (60 min of occlusion and then 60 min reperfusion); (5) IR + 1 mg/kg levosimendan group: Levosimendan was given intraperitonally 30 min prior to the ischemia; (6) IR + 2 mg/kg levosimendan group. Results: The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta were found to have increased in the IR group. The serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta were found to have decreased as a result of the administration of both doses of levosimendan in the IR. Relative TNF-alpha and NF kappa B mRNA levels was decreased by administration of both doses of levosimendan in the IR. SOD activity and GSH levels for IR group were lower than, and 8-ISO levels were higher than, those of the sham-operated rat and ischemia alone group. Conclusions: Both doses of levosimendan had preventive effects on the alterations that occurred in the intestinal tissues after IR. Levosimendan administration attenuated in reperfusion injury of intestine and consequently protects intestinal mucosa and oxidant-antioxidant balance of ileum.