The Position of Superficial Veins in the Anterior Region of the Elbow and the Relations Among These Veins in Fetus Cadavers

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TURKIYE KLINIKLERI TIP BILIMLERI DERGISI, cilt.31, ss.1113-1121, 2011 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 31 Konu: 5
  • Basım Tarihi: 2011
  • Doi Numarası: 10.5336/medsci.2010-20709
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1113-1121


Objective: Venipuncture (obteining blood) is performed in just about all areas of modern medicine and is generally regarded as a harmless procedure. Neighboring arteries, veins and peripheral nerves have been reported to be damaged during the process. Obese patients, intravenous drug users, patients receiving intravenous chemotherapy and infants and premature infants may all exhibit venipuncture or intravenous pathway difficulties. Our study was intended to describe the types and positions of superficial veins in the anterior region of the elbow. Material and Methods: The study was performed by measuring the anterior region of the elbow in 38 upper extremities of 14 female and seven male fetus cadavers. Fetus cadavers, aged between 17.9-35.8 gestational weeks by foot lenght and preserved in 10% formaldehyde were used. The locations and positions of superficial veins were described. Lengths between the medial epicondyle-basilic vein (B), lateral epicondyle-cephalic vein (C), basilic vein-cephalic vein (D) and elbow width (A) were measured in all fetuses. The values obtained were analyzed separately for right and left arms and for male and female fetuses, in total and between the sexes. Results: The most common superficial vein types were NI (61.0%), followed by 0 type (18.20%), M type (11.95%) and N2 type (8.68%). Left side D/A, C and C/A measurements were significantly greater than right side D/A, C and C/A measurements (p = 0.009, p = 0.021, p = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion: Venipuncture is a procedure frequently performed in infants and premature infants to open a venous access or to obtain samples. Since the cephalic vein and basilic vein are more prominent and are seen in a greater proportion of the cases, these should be the veins selected for venipuncture in the anterior region of the elbow. The basilic vein in this region must be preferred in infants and premature infants. The cephalic vein and basilic vein should be sought immediately on the external borders of the central part 1/3 of the length of the transverse line passing over the medial and lateral epicondyles (A). It should still be borne in mind that the cephalic vein, basilic vein and median cubital vein can still be present in different forms and positions, and all these differences should be considered when planning entry to the veins of the anterior region of the elbow.