The karyotypes of nine Tanacetum taxa distributed in north-east Anatolia, Turkey, were determined and evaluated by cluster analysis and principal-components analysis. Chromosome numbers were 2n = 2x = 18 (8 taxa) and 4x = 36 (1 taxon). Somatic chromosome numbers of two taxa and a new ploidy level in one taxon are reported for the first time. Karyotype analysis indicated that chromosomes of Tanacetum taxa have predominantly median centromeres. The taxa studied differed significantly in the size of the short arms and long arms, and the arm ratio of each pair of homologous chromosomes, indicating structural rearrangements of the chromosomes have been involved in diversification of the taxa. They were placed in 2A, 3A, and 2B of Stebbins' karyotype classification, showing the presence of a primitive symmetrical karyotype in the genus. Several systematic and evolutionary aspects of the genus are discussed on the basis of karyological data.