The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adipocytokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on appearance of protein-energy wasting (PEW). One hundred fifty patients with mean age of 45.4 +/- 15.9 years, without active infections or chronic inflammatory conditions were recruited into the study. Study groups were control group (consisting of 30 healthy volunteers with normal kidney functions), hemodialysis group, predialysis group, peritoneal dialysis group and kidney transplant group. Fasting morning serum leptin, ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin, resistin levels of all of the groups were measured. Anthropometric and nutritional assessments of all patients were obtained. Diagnosis of PEW was made according to definition recommended by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Presence of PEW in hemodialysis (23.3%) and peritoneal dialysis (26.7%) groups were significantly higher than those of predialysis (3.3%), and transplantation (0%) groups. Adiponectin and resistin levels in predialysis, peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than control group (p: 0.0001). This study had given significant positive correlations between presence of PEW and serum resistin (r: 0.267, p: 0.001), and serum adiponectin levels (r: 0.349, p: 0.0001). There were no relationship between presence of PEW and ghrelin, acylated-ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, and leptin levels of the groups. CKD patients except transplant patients had higher adiponectin and resistin levels than control group. PEW was found to be linearly correlated with resistin and adiponectin. High serum resistin and adiponectin levels might have a role in development of PEW among dialysis patients.