Assessing the Environmental Benefits of Dry Port Usage: A Case of Inland Container Transport in Turkey

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SUSTAINABILITY, vol.11, no.23, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su11236793
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Keywords: dry port, intermodal rail transport, greenhouse gas emissions, modal shift, discrete event simulation, FREIGHT TRANSPORT, MODAL SHIFT, ASSIGNMENT, EFFICIENCY, EMISSIONS, TERMINALS
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Inland transportation of maritime freight conducted by trucks creates extensive emissions. These emissions can be mitigated by using intermodal-rail transport through dry ports. In that regard, this study evaluated the environmental benefits of dry port usage by using discrete event simulation modelling. The results show that the current level of dry port-based intermodal transportation decreases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5.79% compared to transportation of all containers on the road. Evaluating the impact of the electrified railway line on the GHG emissions revealed unexpected results; the electrification of the railway line would decrease GHG emissions only by 0.06%. The improvements in empty container movement and scheduling slightly reduced GHG emissions by 0.69% and 0.63% respectively, however, highest GHG emissions reduction resulted from modal shift by 6.56%. This study extended the previous literature by assessing not only the environmental benefits of dry port usage but also its effects on train capacity usage, while taking the empty container movement into account.