Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the factors that affect asthma control and adherence to treatment in newly diagnosed elderly asthmatics in Turkey compared with younger patients. Methods: This real-life prospective observational cohort study was conducted at 136 centers. A web-based questionnaire was administered to the patients who were followed up for 12 months. Results: Analysis included 1037 young adult asthma patients (age <65 years) and 79 elderly asthma patients (age >= 65 years). The percentage of patients with total control in the elderly and young groups were 33.9% and 37.1% at visit 1, 20.0% and 42.1% (p = 0.012) at visit 2, and 50.0% and 49.8% at visit 3, respectively. Adherence to treatment was similar for both groups. Visit compliance was better in the elderly group than in the young group at visit 1 (72.2% vs. 60.8%, p = 0.045), visit 2 (51.9% vs. 34.9%, p = 0.002), and visit 3 (32.9% vs. 19.4%, p = 0.004). Adherence to treatment increased with asthma control in both groups (both p < 0.001) but decreased with the presence of gastritis/ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, and coronary artery disease in the elderly. Conclusions: Asthma control and adherence to treatment were similar for the elderly and young asthma patients, though the follow-up rate was lower in young patients. The presence of gastritis/ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux and coronary artery disease had negative impacts on the adherence to treatment in elderly adult patients.