Biomass easily can replace fossil fuels in the use of modern biomass energy due to the environmental benefits and the renewable. Biomass energy in Turkey is one of the most important renewable energy sources in terms of energy potential. Traditional biomass (wood and dung) in Turkey has a significant energy production rate. This ratio has been decreased with the decline of forests and the reduction seen in animal husbandry, recently. Traditional biomass is usually used in the form of non-commercial fuel and meets a quarter of the domestic energy production. Traditional biomass energy production has been planned 7530 Btep in 2020. In Turkey, the use of modern biomass energy is important in terms of the country's economy, and the environment pollution. Turkey has the potential to provide an alternative source of energy from the most appropriate and most cost-effective agricultural products according to its ecological conditions. Modern biomass started with 17 Btep in 2000. However, there has not been the foresight to future production. Whereas traditional biomass energy production should increasingly be reduced and modern biomass energy production should be increased. This situation will offer new investment fields to investors. This study shows that biomass energy continues to be the main source of energy for climate change mitigation and energy sustainability in Turkey, particularly in its traditional forms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.