The relationship between oxidative stress and apoptosis of histopathological changes in the ovary made by mad honey containing grayanotoxin

Yeşil Sarsmaz H., Gürgen S. G., CANSU A., Türkmen S., GÜNDÜZ A.

Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.187, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 187
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fct.2024.114634
  • Journal Name: Food and Chemical Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Apoptosis, Grayonotoxin, Immunohistochemistry, Mad honey, Normal honey, Ovary
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of grayanotoxin in mad honey on ovarian tissue folliculogenesis in terms of cell death and nitric oxide expression. Three groups of 18 female Sprague-Dawley rats were formed. The first group received mad honey (80 mg/kg), the second group received normal honey (80 mg/kg), and the third group was the control. The first and second groups received normal and mad honey by oral gavage for 30 days before being sacrificed under anesthesia. Caspase 3 immunostaining showed a moderate to strong response, particularly in the mad honey group. In the mad honey group, immunostaining for caspase 8 and caspase 9 revealed a moderate immunoreaction in the granulosa cells of the Graaf follicles. The majority of Graaf follicles exhibited TUNEL positive in the mad honey group. The iNOS immunoreaction revealed a high level of expression in the mad honey group. In all three groups, eNOS immunostaining showed weak reactivity. According to the findings of apoptotic and nitric oxide marker expression, it was determined that mad honey may result in an increase in follicular atresia in ovarian follicles when compared to normal honey and control groups.