The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of quercetin in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury using histopathological, morphometric and biochemical methods. A total of 48 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks old were randomly divided into eight groups, consisting of two sham groups (S-7, S-28), three quercetin-treated groups (Q-7, Q-28; 200 mg/kg/7 days), trauma (T-7, T-28; 1 min sciatic nerve crush injury) and three trauma+quercetin groups (T+Q-7, T+Q-28; trauma+quercetin 200 mg/kg/7 days). Rats were sacrificed on day 7 or 28. Oxidant-antioxidant biochemical parameters in nerve tissues from all groups were analyzed using histopathological staining with toluidine blue and Masson's trichrome. DNA fragmentations were identified using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in cells from each tissue sample. Degeneration of the axons and myelin sheath, the breakdown of the concentric lamellar structure of the myelin sheath and axonal swelling were observed in groups T-7 and T-28. Myelin sheath thicknesses, nerve fiber diameters and the number of myelinated nerve fibers decreased, while the apoptotic index (AI) increased in the T-7 and T-28 groups. However, it was observed that nerve regeneration began in the T+Q-7 and T+Q-28 groups compared with the sham groups, together with the healing of cellular damage and axonal structure and a decrease in the AI. Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity did not differ significantly between the T-7 and S-7 groups. However, catalase activity significantly decreased in the T-28 group when compared with the sham 7 day group. Tissue malondialdehyde levels significantly increased, while serum catalase activity increased in the T+Q-7 group compared with the T-7 group. These results suggest that quercetin has beneficial effects on nerve regeneration and may shorten the healing period in crush-type sciatic nerve injuries.