This study investigated the effects of Onosma armeniacum K. (Boraginaceae) root extract (AR-1) on ethanol-induced stomach ulcers, and on some oxidant and antioxidant parameters, in stomach tissue in rats. The results obtained showed that AR-1 significantly inhibited ethanol-induced ulcers at 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses. We found that 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of AR-1 inhibited ulcers more effectively than did ranitidine. AR-1 at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg significantly prevented the decrease in total glutathione (tGSH) level which occurs in damaged stomach tissues of rats given ethanol (control group). Only a 100 mg/kg dose of AR-1 significantly increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) level in stomach tissue compared to the control. All doses of AR-1 except the 25 mg/kg dose eliminated the decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in the stomach tissue of rats given ethanol. While all doses of AR-1 decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly; all doses AR-1 except 25 mg/kg decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels significantly compared to the control. The effect of AR-1 on catalase (CAT) activity was insignificant at all doses. AR-1 significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) levels at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses compared to the control. Our results indicate that the protection of some antioxidant mechanisms and the inhibition of some oxidant mechanisms have a role in AR-1's antiulcer effect mechanism. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.