Petrogenesis of Late Campanian Alkaline Igneous Rocks in Eastern Anatolia: Magmatism related to a subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault?

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ERSOY E. Y., UYSAL İ., CANDAN O., Palmer M. R., Müller D.

International Geology Review, vol.66, no.2, pp.533-555, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00206814.2023.2201830
  • Journal Name: International Geology Review
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.533-555
  • Keywords: alkaline magmatism, Eastern Anatolia, geochemical modelling, STEP fault
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In eastern Anatolia, the Divriği-Hekimhan Magmatic Province (DHMP) includes ~77–69 Ma alkaline rock units which are located to the NW of the Baskil Arc of ~85–74 Ma. The magmatic rocks are composed of nepheline (Ne)–to quartz (Q)–normative alkaline basaltic to trachytic/syenitic units. Among them, the basaltic rocks are composed of plagioclase (Or2–11Ab32–51An39–64) + clinopyroxene (Wo47–51En35–42Fs9–16) + Fe-Ti oxide ± alkali feldspar (Or57–98Ab2–42An1) ± biotite ± olivine. Their 87Sr/86Sr(I) ratios and ɛNd(I) values vary in the ranges of 0.70591–0.70871 and−3.2–1.6, respectively. The subvolcanic trachytic rocks are composed of perthitic alkali feldspar phenocryst in a matrix of feldspar (Or45–61Ab38–54An0–2), biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides. The trachytic volcanic rocks are made up of feldspar (Or38–63Ab34–59An1–4) in a fine-grained matrix. Their 87Sr/86Sr(I) ratios and ɛNd(I) values vary in the ranges of 0.70532–0.70952 and−3.2–0.7, respectively. The syenitic rocks in the region contain both quartz- and nepheline-sodalite-bearing syenites. Geochemical features reveal that the Ne-normative basaltic magmas have undergone mafic mineral fractionation coupled with crustal contamination to produce the Q-normative derivatives. Enhanced differentiation of the Ne- and Q-normative fractionated magmas via feldspar-dominated fractionation created the silica-undersaturated and -oversaturated trachytic magmas, respectively. During the feldspar-dominated differentiation, the re-melting of accumulated alkali feldspars in the magma chamber likely gave rise to the formation of trachytic rocks with alkali feldspar-like whole rock compositions. The final products of the Ne-normative magmas are represented by the phonolites and foid-syenites with silica-undersaturated eutectic compositions. A geochemical evaluation of the basaltic rocks revealed that the alkaline magmatism mainly originated from a shallow asthenospheric mantle source which had previously been metasomatized by oceanic to continental subduction. We suggest that the DHMP was formed in response to STEP fault-controlled rolling back of the northward subducting slab of the Baskil Arc, which created a localized gap for asthenospheric upwelling.