Endothelins (ETs) are discovered peptides that are widely distributed in neurons and nonneuronal cells of the human nervous system. Previous studies showed that ischemic stroke may be associated with increased plasma ET-1 levels. There are no studies to show plasma ET-1 levels in intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma ET-1 levels in 30 patients with cerebral hemorrhage within 72 hours after the onset of focal neurological deficit were measured by a microplate enzyme immunoassay. Thirty sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were accepted as a control group. The clinical neurological status in the patients was evaluated according to the modified Matthew Scale. The mean plasma ET-1 level in hemorrhagic stroke patients was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.39 ± 2.08 v 0.65 ± 0.32 fmol/mL, P < .05). There was a significant difference in ET levels between patients who died in the hospital and patients who survived (P < .05). The mean ET-1 concentration in patients with severe neurologic deficit was significantly higher than in patients with mild neurologic deficit (P < .05). There was a correlation between hematoma volumes and plasma ET-1 levels in the patients (r = 0.66, P < .001). The mean plasma ET-1 concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with intraventricular hemorrhage than in patients without intraventricular hemorrhage (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in ET-1 levels between supratentorial and infratentorial subgroups or among supratentorial subgroups (P > .05). It was concluded that plasma ET-1 levels were increased in the acute period of hemorrhagic stroke. Plasma ET-1 levels may be associated with hematoma volume, which is related to a poor prognosis of the cerebral hematoma. We suggest that increased plasma ET-1 levels may be a consequence of local cerebral hemorrhage or the acute stress condition of the disease.