Colistin is an old antibiotic used in the treatment of Gram-negative infections. It was once suspended because of its nephrotoxic effect but has since been reintroduced due to multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The pathogenesis of colistin-associated nephropathy has not been clarified, and there is currently no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agent available. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of caspase-associated apoptosis and caspase 1, calpain 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the pathogenesis of colistin-associated nephrotoxicity and the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in preventing it. Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups: control, colistin, and colistin plus GSPE (colistin + GSPE). Colistin-associated nephropathy was induced by the administration of 300,000 IU/kg of body weight/day colistin intraperitoneally for 7 days. The experiment was discontinued on the seventh day. Blood was collected for measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Histopathological examination of kidney tissue and caspase 1 and 3, iNOS, eNOS, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and calpain 1 staining was also performed. Significant increases in BUN levels; creatinine levels; renal histopathological scores; and TUNEL, caspase 1 and 3, calpain 1, iNOS, and eNOS staining were observed for the colistin group compared to the control group. Significant decreases in BUN levels; creatinine levels; renal histopathological scores; and TUNEL, caspase 1 and 3, calpain 1, iNOS, and eNOS staining were observed in the colistin + GSPE group compared to the colistin group. Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that caspase-mediated apoptosis, iNOS, caspase 1, and calpain 1 are involved in the pathogenesis of colistin-associated nephropathy. GSPE had a renoprotective effect, as shown by the lowered levels of these mediators.