Hippomarathrum microcarpum grows wild in eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and is a plant utilized as food by people. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from H. microcarpum and its essential oil composition were investigated. The essential oil, which has bornyl acetate, caryophyllene oxide, and beta-caryophyllene as its main components, exhibited activity against eight bacteria, nine fungi, and a yeast, Candida albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 62.50 to 125 mu L/mL; the methanol extract showed weak activity. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was assessed by the beta-carotene bleaching test and the 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. The inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was very weak for both extracts tested. The inhibition percentages were found to be 22.9 and 33.5% for methanol and essential oil, respectively, at the concentration of 2 g/L. The oil scavenged DPPH at higher concentrations (IC50 = 10.69 +/- 0.05 mg/mL), but the methanol extract exhibited no activity. The total phenolic content of the methanol extract was found to be 4.7 +/- 0.1%.