Biomass energies, including fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal, and other fuels derived from biological sources, are a promising option with a potentially large impact for developing countries, where the current levels of energy services are low. Biomass accounts for about one third of all energy in developing countries as a whole and nearly 90% in some of the least developed countries. In the case of Turkey, biomass has great potential to provide improved rural energy services based on forest and agricultural residues. The present study gives a review of the production, consumption, and economics of biomass energy for sustainable development in Turkey. In 1999, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country was 10%. In this study, the potential for important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as possible for use for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented.