Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limited or insufficient development of mental abilities, including intellectual functioning impairments, such as learning and understanding cause-effect relationships. Some cases have ID as the only finding and are called isolated cases. Conversely, cases accompanied by facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, obesity, and congenital anomalies are called syndromic developmental delay (DD)/ID. Isolated and syndromic DD/ID cases show extreme genetic heterogeneity. Genetic etiology can be detected in approximately 40% of the cases, whereas chromosomal abnormalities are observed in 25%. Obesity is a multifactorial disease in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. The role of heredity in obesity has been reported to be between 40 and 70%. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) can detect CNVs in the whole genome at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetic methods. Array-CGH is currently recommended as the first-tier genetic test for ID cases worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate clinical, radiological, and genetic analyses of a 12-year and 4-month-old girl with microcephaly, ID, and obesity. In the array-CGH analysis, a 3.1-Mb deletion, arr[GRGh37] 10q23.31g23.33 (92745793_95937944)x1 was detected, and this alteration was evaluated to be pathogenic. We consider that haploinsufficiency of the candidate genes (GPR120, KIF11, EXOC6, CYP26A1, CYP26C1, and LGI1) in the deletion region may explain microcephaly, ID, obesity, seizures, and ophthalmological findings in our patient. The investigation of 10q23.31q23.33 microdeletion in cases with syndromic obesity may contribute to molecular genetic diagnosis.