© 2020Aims: Postprandial lipemia is characterized by an increase in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins after fatty meals. MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between levels of plasma miR expression and lipoprotein metabolism-related proteins in subjects with normal (NPR) and high postprandial response (HPR) in postprandial period. Materials and methods: The oral fat tolerance test was applied to 22 individuals with NPR and 22 with HPR. Key findings: Increased expressions of miR-122 and miR-33a and miR-122/30c ratio and decreased miR-30c expression were observed in fasting and postprandial period of HPR compared with NPR. ROC curve analysis showed that miR-122/30c ratio is a good biomarker for postprandial lipemia (AUC: 0.97, p < 0.001). Levels of TG, MTTP, and Apo B-48 and chylomicron (CM) particle size were significantly higher in HPR than in NPR (p < 0.05). The miR-122/30c ratio at 2 h was positively correlated with CM particle size, and with TG, MTTP and Apo B-48 levels at 4th hour. miR-33a expression decreased in HPR and was negatively correlated with ABCA1 and Apo A-1 levels at 4th hour of the postprandial period in both groups. Significance: Increased miR-122 and decreased miR-30c expression levels in HPR may play critical roles in elevated or prolonged postprandial lipemia. The miR122/30c ratio exhibited good association with MTTP, Apo B-48 and TG levels, and with CM particle size, and may be a reliable marker for evaluating postprandial lipemia. miR-33a may also play a key role in decreased HDL-C in postprandial lipemia.